First, natural gas reserves
Methane is the main component of natural gas , but also exists in a large number of coal-bed methane , biogas and landfill gas. Both cleaner fuels , is also very important chemical raw materials.
Currently the world's proven oil reserves -production ratio is about 40 years, while proven gas reserve-production ratio of 60 years , and no greater than the proven oil and gas , more huge untapped reserves of natural gas hydrate . Currently second only to oil and natural gas has become the world's third largest coal energy , according to experts predict that by mid-21st century , the world's energy consumption structure, the natural gas share from the current 25% to 40% , while oil will down from the current 34 % to 20% , coal will remain at around 27% , in the 21st century will be based on natural gas based energy era. With the strengthening of the increasing depletion of natural resources and exploitation of oil resources , natural gas chemical industry in the 21st century will have a bright future .
World of CBM (coal gas ) reserves are very large , our reserve estimates are as high as 36.7 trillion cubic meters . Development and utilization of CBM resources has been highly valued.
It is estimated that combustible ice ( gas hydrates ) the amount equal to the total resources of the world 2 times the world's known coal, oil , natural gas , to meet the energy needs of mankind for thousands of years . Since 1999, China conducted a prospective study of combustible ice , has found a large number of combustible ice reserves in Chinese waters , only about 50% of the estimated equivalent to the total amount of China's onshore oil reserves of combustible ice in the northern part of the South China Sea .
Biomethane will gradually become an important source of methane. Due to the need for environmental protection from biogas , landfill gas and other biological purification and recovery of methane has been increasing. A huge amount of oil in nature residual oil , coal and oil shale , through the action of microorganisms can provide mankind with clean energy - bio methane , a huge number of such geological organic resources. Some studies show that 48 states of the United States oil shale organic carbon of about 20,000 tons, while coal buried deep and more than 30,000 tons, as well as Alaska buried about 60,000 tons of coal, these geological organic matter as long as 3 percent into methane , can produce 28.3 trillion cubic meters of methane gas , the level of consumption / year estimates based on the current 650 billion cubic meters to supply 40 years .
Second, natural gas and chemical
Methane -rich resources , not only will it play an increasingly important role in the energy field , the same as a chemical raw material will also play a very important role .
Currently, there are about more than 50 developing countries to varying degrees of methane chemical ( gas chemical ) , annual gas consumption of about 160 billion m3, accounting for about 5% to 6% of the world's natural gas consumption, once processed products in total 200 000 000 t or more. The main products include ammonia ( urea ) , methanol ( dimethyl ether ) , synthetic oils , hydrogen gas and carbonyl synthesis , acetylene, halogenated hydrocarbons , hydrogen cyanide , nitroalkanes , carbon disulfide, carbon black, and a large variety of processed products derived from the first matter . Currently, nearly 80 % of the ammonia in the world , nearly 90 % methanol to natural gas as raw materials .
Different regions with different proportions of natural gas chemical industry . Natural Gas Chemical to natural gas resources are abundant and relatively inexpensive regional metastasis. China's natural gas chemical industry for more than 40 years of history , the formation of a - given the scale of production . At present, China 's natural gas as raw material to produce chemical products mainly include ammonia, methanol , hydrogen, acetylene, Oxo chemicals , phosgene , cyanide, methane chloride , carbon disulfide , carbon black , and so on . Although the amount of natural gas currently consumed in the production of chemicals is not large ( more than 100 million m3 / a), but it accounts for a higher proportion of domestic consumption of natural gas , is still up about 30%. Although relatively declining gas consumption , but the absolute gas consumption is increasing. In Sichuan, Chongqing, and the development and utilization of natural gas -rich region earlier natural gas chemical industry accounts for a significant proportion of the chemical , such as Chongqing natural gas chemical industry output value accounted for more than half of its total output value of the chemical .
The main natural gas and chemical technology as outlined below:
Ammonia is the main raw material for the production of urea, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate and other chemical fertilizers , industrial processes based on natural gas or coal as raw material obtained through steam reforming process of hydrogen , and nitrogen is then obtained by high-pressure synthesis of ammonia .
According to statistics, the world's ammonia production capacity has more than 176 million tons / year, mainly the distribution of production capacity : 1000 U.S. tons / year , Canada and 5.2 million tons / year, Mexico 2.91 million tons / year, South America, 8.56 million tons / year ( which Trinidad 4,530,000 tons / year ) , Western Europe 12,180,000 tons / year, Eastern Europe 33,334,000 tons / year, Middle East / Africa 15.602 million tons / year, the Asia-Pacific region 87.2 million tons / year. Ammonia by end-use points, about 85 % to 90 % of the ammonia is used as fertilizer : liquid ammonia , ammonium nitrate, urea or other derivatives , only 13% used for other commodity markets. It is predicted that in the next few years will be 3.5% of the world's ammonia production / year growth rate continued to grow in 2010 will reach 200 million tons .
Nearly 80 percent of the world's ammonia production is based on natural gas as raw material , natural gas and coal-based ammonia -based ammonia compared to short process, investment, and therefore is the best material for ammonia gas . However , in recent years, the rapid rise in gas prices , has led to the United States , Europe and other regions to close a number of ammonia plant . Forward natural gas prices low ammonia production area transfer , will focus on the Middle East , North Africa and Trinidad areas. Because of China's coal resources are relatively rich compared to the lack of natural gas , the development focus of ammonia coal as raw material , but in the relative abundance of natural gas in Sichuan , Chongqing, Xinjiang , Ningxia, Hainan and other regions, natural gas or ammonia has been developed .
At present, China ammonia production capacity has more than 50 million t / a, where natural gas as raw materials account for only about 21% , but 300 000 t / a ammonia plant more large majority of natural gas as feedstock . In addition to a dozen large-scale ammonia plant there are more than 60 sets of natural gas as raw material , the small ammonia plant .
Ammonia production is energy conservation and the development of large-scale direction .
2.2 methanol synthesis
Methanol is extremely important to a basic organic chemical raw materials, widely used in organic synthesis , dyes , pharmaceuticals , paints and defense industries. With the development of science and technology, methanol has opened up new application areas , with methanol as raw material products more and more, the use of methanol fuel is also increasing.
2005 global methanol production capacity of 48.6 million tons , production of 36 million tons , in 2006 the world's methanol production capacity of 49.65 million tons total . 2010 World methanol production capacity is expected to reach 64 million in 2015 amounted to 72 million tons . In recent years , China's rapid development of the methanol production and consumption , by the end of 2006 China's methanol production capacity has reached 10.97 million tons , 2006 production was 7.623 million tons , of which about 30% of natural gas as raw material . Currently under construction and planning of construction projects methanol production capacity of 7.7 million tons of gas / year .
In the past 20 years, regional distribution and production status of methanol production capacity has undergone tremendous changes, those countries with rich natural resources, despite the limited domestic demand , but also to build a world-class large-scale methanol production plant , and the United States, exports to developed countries in Western Europe and Japan, a lot of methanol , while the industrial developed countries have closed those less efficient methanol production plant . Currently under construction or planned construction abroad methanol production capacity, mostly in the Middle East, South America and other natural gas -rich region .
Another trend is the large-scale methanol production development. Currently the production capacity of 300,000 t capacity methanol plant / a over the total production capacity has more than 80 %. Large methanol plant in recent years, foreign companies have developed a production capacity of 5000 ~ 10000t / d of production of new technology , can significantly reduce the production cost of the investment and methanol. At present, the production capacity of large methanol plant 1.7 million t / a has been completed and commissioned.
Almost all of the methanol is synthesized via synthesis gas , methane gas without direct synthesis of methanol synthesis technology is currently a research hot , but there is still some distance away from industrial applications .
GTL is an important way to use natural gas in remote areas , the long-term rise in oil prices make it increasingly attractive . The most important advantage of GTL (GTL) is no sulfur, nitrogen non-ideal components , nickel impurities and aromatics , are cleaner fuels, in full compliance with the stringent requirements of modern engines and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Currently Malaysia and Qatar GTL plant has been put into operation . GTL technology in recent years, through continuous improvement and perfection , gradually reduce investment and production costs . Although industrial production is not GTL , GTL but the future prospects for the industry remain optimistic that the next 10 to 15 years GTL project will have greater development . According to the South African company Sasol predicts that by 2020, the World GTL production up to 90 million tons / year.
By the end of February 2007 , Sinopec Group Company and the United States established a synthetic technology joint venture in China to promote the commercial GTL and CTL coal liquefaction of natural gas liquefaction technology . GTL GTL facilities planned annual production capacity of 790,000 tons .